(2) The Clockwise (CW) warp clock can be used

any time the part is illustrated as viewed from

the code by a forward slash (/), if their angles are

the OML, and can be thought of as looking at

different.

the same warp clock from the opposite side,

or from the outside looking inward as seen

in igure 5-15. Note that in both cases the 0º

ply face to the other, starting with the irst ply laid

axis and the 90º axis remain the same, but

up, with brackets indicating the beginning and the

the 45º axes change sign.

end of the code.

denoted by a numerical subscript.

total laminate is shown. If no subscript is present

on the brackets, the T is assumed to be there. See

When

adjacent plies are of the same angle but opposite

in sign, the appropriate use of the + and - signs is

employed. Each + or - sign represents one ply and

supersedes the use of the numerical subscript, which

is used only when the directions are identical. Signs

can be condensed to ± (plus minus) or a (minus

lated speciically for unidirectional laminates; a modii-

plus) sign with the sign that is on top representing

cation was subsequently established for woven fabric

the irst ply in the layup order. See igure 5-17.

and braided laminates. The standard code is used

In the ifth example illustrated, the latter code is

to describe a speciic laminate uniquely and is most

preferred because it can more easily accommodate

simply deined by the following detailed description

larger numbers. See igure 5-18. Note that, in

of its features.

condensing the signs, the sign of the center ply of

an odd number is left uncombined.

by a number representing its orientation in degrees

between its warp direction and the reference direction.

Normally the angles are limited to between 90 and

90°.

Integrated Publishing, Inc. |