See aircraft operator s manual for special precautions and restrictions using various turbine fuels.
b. The use of kerosene fuels (JP-5 and JP-8 type) in turbine engines dictates the need for observance of
special precautions. Both ground starts and air restarts at low temperature may be more dificult due to negligible
vapor pressure. Kerosene fuels having a freezing point of -40 °F (-40 °C) limit the altitude of a mission to 28,000
feet (8400m) under "standard day" conditions. Those having a freezing point of -67 °F (-55 °C) limit the altitude of
a mission to 33,000 feet (9900m) under "standard day" conditions. The above altitude limits need not be complied
with if an engine fuel heater is used.
c. Fuels must be kept free of water to prevent plugging of the fuel system by ice crystals at high altitudes.
Elimination of water is also essential to prevent the growth of microbiological organisms. See MIL-STD-3004 for
d. Turbine engine fuels, as well as AVGAS, form explosive mixture readily. In order to Insure safety of person-
nel, aircraft handling and refueling operations will conform to ATP 3-04.94 (Army Techniques Publication for Forward
Arming and Refueling Points), FM 10-67 (Petroleum Supply in Theaters of Operations), FM 10-67-1 (Concepts and
Equipment of Petroleum Operations), and TM 4-43.31 (Petroleum Laboratory Testing and Operations)
a. In general, ASTM speciications for jet fuels permit the use of approved oxidation and corrosion inhibitors
and metal deactivators. However, the quantities and types must be declared and agreed to by the consumer. Military
speciications permit use of a metal deactivator in either JP-4 or JP-5 fuel and also permit an approved corrosion
inhibitor in JP-4, provided it is blended into the fuel by the supplier. MIL-DTL-5624 and MIL-DTL-83133 presently
contains the requirements that the grades of JP-4, JP-5, JP-8 (NATO F-34), NATO F-35, and JP-8+100 (NATO
F-37) contains icing inhibitors. The speciication requires that these inhibitors be added at the reinery to a minimum
percent volume of 0.10 and 0.15% maximum.
Inhibitor, Icing fuel system MIL-DTL-85470, undiluted diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DiEGME)
is both combustible and toxic. It is harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin. It causes eye
irritation. Before handling undiluted ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, consult appropriate safety
and occupational health directives and Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS).
b. If it is known that Icing inhibitor conforming to MIL-DTL-85470 was not added by the supplier, it shall be
added during refueling operations, regardless of ambient temperatures. The additive provides anti-icing protection
and also functions as a biocide to kill microbial growths in aircraft fuel systems. Refueling operations shall be ac-
complished in accordance with accepted commercial procedures. (See speciic aircraft manuals for any limitations.)
c. Antioxidants. Immediately after processing and before the fuel is exposed to the atmosphere (such as
during rundown into feed/batch tankage), add an approved antioxidant formulation or combination of approved an-
tioxidant formulations in order to prevent the formation of gums and peroxides after manufacture. The concentration
of antioxidant to be added shall be in accordance with either MIL-DTL-5624 (JP-4 & JP-5) or MIL-DTL-83133 (JP-8).
d. Metal Deactivator. Metal deactivator additive shall not be used in JP-4, JP-5, or JP-8 unless the supplier
has obtained written consent from the procuring activity and user. A metal deactivator, N,N -disalycylidene-1,2-
propanediamine, may be blended into the fuel. The concentration of active material used on initial batching of the
fuel at the reinery shall not exceed 2.0 mg/L. Cumulative addition of metal deactivator when re-doping the fuel shall
not exceed 5.7 mg/L.
e. Static Dissipater Additive. An additive shall be blended into the fuel in suficient concentration to increase
the conductivity of the fuel to within the range speciied in Table I at the point of injection. The point of injection of
the additive shall be determined by agreement between the purchasing authority and the supplier. The following
electrical conductivity additive is approved: StadisŪ 450 marketed by Innospec Fuel Specialties LLC (formerly Octel
Starreon LLC), Newark, DE 19702.