FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES
TURBINE ENGINE FUELS
a. Turbine fuels are high-quality fuels covering the general heavy gasoline and kerosene boiling range. They
do not contain dyes or tetraethyl lead.
b. One of the major differences between the wide-boiling and the kerosene types is the fuel volatility. JP-4
type fuels have a wider boiling range with their initial boiling point considerably below that of kerosene. As a group,
these fuels have lower speciic gravities than kerosene types. Wide-boiling range fuels have Reid Vapor Pressures
of 2-3 pounds and lash points of below room temperature. The kerosene type fuels, such as JP-5 and JP-8, have
Reid Vapor Pressures of less than 0.5 pound and lash points higher than 100 °F (38 °C). Wide-boiling range fuels
generally have lower freezing points than kerosene type fuels.
c. Military speciication MIL-DTL-5624 covers JP-4 (NATO Code F-40) and JP-5 (NATO Code F-44) fuels.
Military speciication MIL-DTL-83133 covers JP-8 (NATO Code F-34), NATO Code F-35, and JP-8+100 (NATO Code
F-37) fuels. Jet A, Jet A1 and Jet B are commercial fuels which conform to the American Society for Testing Materials
Jet B is a JP-4 type fuel; its freezing point is -56 °F (-49 °C) instead of -72 ° F (-58 °C).
JP-5, Jet A, and Jet A-1 are kerosene-type fuels.
f. ASTM Jet A and A-1 differ primarily in fuel freezing point. Jet A is considered suitable down to fuel temper-
atures of -36 °F (-38 °C), while Jet A-1 has a minimum requirement of -54 °F (-48 °C).
g. NATO Code F-24 is ASTM Jet A fuel that has the military additive package (FSII, CI/LI, SDA) added. NATO
Code F-27 is NATO Code F-24 that has the fuel thermal stability improver additive.
h. JP-4 is a fuel consisting of approximately 65% gasoline and 35% light petroleum distillate, with rigidly spec-
i. JP-5 is a specially reined kerosene having a minimum lash point of 140"F and a freezing point of -51 °F
j. JP-8 is the Army standard fuel for turbine engines. It is also considered the "one fuel on the battleield." It is
reined kerosene having a minimum lash point of 110F and a freezing point of -54 °F (-48 °C).
k. JP-4 is considered the Army s cold weather fuel and is available only in extreme cold climates, such as
Alaska, where it is required for used below (-29 °F).
a. Turbine engine fuel speciications, characteristics, freezing points, lash points, ASTM grades and NATO
b. Table 2-3 lists the Army standard, alternate and emergency fuels for ixed and rotary wing turbine powered
c. Jet fuels at commercial airports are usually identiied by brand names or the American Society for Testing
and Materials (ASTM) grades in lieu of NATO code numbers. Table 2-4 contains a list of current brand name products
that may be encountered in the USA and at overseas commercial airields.